Maize

What is Maize?

Maize, scientifically known as Zea mays, is a cereal grain that holds a significant place in global agriculture and human consumption. It is a tall, annual plant that belongs to the grass family, Poaceae. Maize has a distinct appearance with its sturdy stalks that can grow to impressive heights, reaching up to 3 meters (10 feet) or more. The plant produces large, elongated ears that contain rows of edible kernels, which are the primary part of the plant consumed by humans and animals.

Maize is thought to have originated in Mesoamerica and has a long history dating back thousands of years. It has been cultivated by indigenous peoples for various purposes, including as a staple food crop. Over time, maize cultivation spread throughout the Americas and eventually reached other parts of the world through exploration and trade.

One of the notable features of maize is its remarkable adaptability to different climates and growing conditions. It can be cultivated in a wide range of environments, from temperate to tropical regions, making it one of the most widely grown crops globally. Maize is highly valued for its versatility, as it serves as a raw material in numerous industries, including food, animal feed, biofuels, and manufacturing.

The cultivation and utilization of maize have had a profound impact on societies and economies worldwide. It plays a vital role in food security, providing a significant source of calories and nutrients for millions of people. Furthermore, maize by-products are utilized in various industries, such as producing cornstarch, corn oil, and even biodegradable plastics. Its importance as a staple crop and industrial resource has made maize an integral part of global agriculture and economic systems.

Maize Production in the World

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is the top country producing Maize in the world. In 2021/22 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines produced 303,138 tonnes of Maize. Jordan is the world's second-largest Maize producer, with 285,994 tonnes, and first in acreage(43,324,100). In terms of Maize yield, the United States of America is the most productive country on the planet with 383,943,000. United Arab Emirates, Israel, and Tajikistan are the top three leading countries with '262,262', '211,135', '145,271', and '138,316' tonnes respectively. Cabo Verde has the lowest Production of Maize in the world with only 163 tonnes in 2021/22.


Top 10 Countries by Maize Production in 2021

Top Countries by Production of Maize in 2021/22

Rank Country production(Tonnes) acreage(Hectare) Yield
1Saint Vincent and the Grenadines303,13826802
2Jordan285,99487425,000
3United Arab Emirates262,26290123,639
4Israel211,1353,23168,224
5Tajikistan145,27116,521240,000
6Kuwait138,31692812,833
7Spain128,329358,2704,597,660
8Qatar125,4022242,809
9Chile118,10967,211793,822
10New Zealand114,00018,358209,281
11Austria111,590218,2002,434,900
12United States of America111,10934,555,670383,943,000
13Greece110,181120,0701,322,940
14Germany103,608430,7004,462,400
15Italy103,295588,6006,079,960
16Portugal101,04674,470752,490
17Canada100,5671,390,50013,983,859
18Netherlands99,66317,200171,420
19France99,1171,549,52015,358,300
20Czechia96,451102,440988,040
21New Caledonia95,8887747,417
22Slovenia93,92041,400388,830
23Belgium93,29948,220449,890
24Uzbekistan90,73465,027590,016
25Türkiye89,046758,0326,750,000
26Azerbaijan87,10332,059279,248
27Mauritius86,4061281,106
28Bangladesh85,790479,8264,116,438
29Sweden85,6321,74014,900
30Bahamas84,19279668
31Switzerland78,57312,50098,216
32Croatia77,857287,9802,242,120
33Slovakia77,728203,1601,579,120
34Ukraine76,8185,481,80042,109,850
35Malaysia74,35110,04974,719
36Argentina74,2968,146,59660,525,805
37Poland73,331998,4707,321,910
38Egypt73,0241,027,0577,500,000
39Albania71,07358,288414,271
40Denmark70,7346,40045,270
41Oman66,9542,32215,545
42Australia66,82245,742305,656
43Taiwan66,16231,759210,124
44Luxembourg65,71470460
45Kyrgyzstan65,205105,994691,139
46Pakistan64,3561,652,50110,634,831
47Iran (Islamic Republic of)63,75750,217320,170
48China62,91043,324,100272,552,000
49Hungary60,9221,054,5706,424,630
50Kazakhstan59,856188,7031,129,508
51Bulgaria59,811573,0203,427,310
52Lao People's Democratic Republic59,327176,9861,050,000
53Serbia59,0701,020,3376,027,131
54Lithuania58,57917,870104,680
55Romania58,0142,554,68014,820,690
56Indonesia57,2373,495,98120,010,000
57Armenia55,8051,0756,000
58Cambodia55,308166,340920,000
59South Africa54,1023,118,30016,870,705
60Syrian Arab Republic54,08757,285309,841
61Papua New Guinea54,0522,33512,622
62Uruguay53,969142,600769,600
63Republic of Moldova53,469522,3002,792,700
64Russian Federation52,5222,901,61215,239,865
65Belarus51,712222,0001,148,000
66Republic of Korea51,31615,20078,000
67Algeria51,2783,60618,491
68Viet Nam49,367900,6734,446,383
69Iraq47,97478,042374,400
70Brazil46,49919,024,53888,461,943
71Ecuador46,413366,1381,699,370
72Saudi Arabia45,38513,00059,000
73Belize45,12724,097108,743
74Bosnia and Herzegovina44,572200,376893,124
75Montenegro44,4995812,584
76Sri Lanka44,254106,757472,444
77Thailand44,1671,200,0005,300,000
78North Macedonia43,48030,827134,036
79Ethiopia42,3792,530,00010,722,000
80Paraguay41,294990,0004,088,093
81Colombia39,531402,5671,591,400
82Maldives39,36537144
83Democratic People's Republic of Korea39,316585,0002,300,000
84Myanmar38,711594,1492,300,000
85Mexico38,5227,139,62127,503,478
86Bhutan37,6668,21430,939
87Peru35,794442,0131,582,135
88Suriname33,750827
89Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)32,849469,3201,541,648
90Philippines32,3682,564,3838,300,322
91India32,0999,860,00031,650,000
92Nepal30,596979,7762,997,733
93Georgia30,49776,400233,000
94Puerto Rico30,465824
95Bolivia (Plurinational State of)30,036407,7541,224,720
96Lebanon30,0001,0003,000
97Fiji30,0004791,438
98Sierra Leone29,9087,53822,545
99El Salvador29,564297,994881,000
100Uganda28,427984,9952,800,000
101Barbados28,2341850
102Turkmenistan27,0412,8477,699
103Ghana26,9231,300,0003,500,000
104Japan26,78762166
105Senegal26,429285,530754,621
106Malawi26,1771,750,0004,581,000
107Zambia25,6741,410,1023,620,244
108Panama23,60657,370135,425
109Mali23,4541,536,1893,603,000
110Guatemala22,156884,6351,960,000
111Côte d'Ivoire21,974518,7941,140,000
112Libya21,8571,5793,452
113Nigeria21,2426,000,00012,745,000
114Antigua and Barbuda20,941511
115Comoros20,3783,0866,289
116Sao Tome and Principe20,065298598
117Djibouti20,004817
118Namibia19,94146,07091,869
119Afghanistan19,53592,144180,000
120Cuba18,941126,035238,721
121Honduras18,668360,823673,592
122Madagascar18,386126,200232,026
123Dominican Republic17,98930,42254,725
124Costa Rica17,7293,5236,246
125Cameroon17,7051,186,1932,100,147
126Burkina Faso17,2381,109,7441,913,000
127Dominica16,755115193
128Trinidad and Tobago16,6673,0005,000
129The United Republic of Tanzania15,9984,400,0007,039,000
130Gabon15,62928,90345,173
131Burundi15,556180,000280,000
132Zimbabwe15,344957,7931,469,664
133Kenya15,2312,168,6033,303,000
134Rwanda15,216317,212482,682
135Guinea14,500550,570798,327
136Micronesia (Federated States of)14,3286492
137Eswatini14,28670,000100,000
138Nicaragua13,706274,131375,726
139Guyana13,6702,9264,000
140Togo12,387750,000929,000
141Benin12,0641,349,5431,628,149
142Yemen11,66730,00035,000
143Chad11,236324,517364,631
144Mozambique11,2301,870,0002,100,000
145Jamaica11,1801,8982,122
146Angola10,8362,741,0912,970,208
147Congo10,00013,00013,000
148Eritrea10,00020,00020,000
149Grenada9,975384383
150Timor-Leste9,72157,66656,058
151South Sudan8,447207,714175,454
152Guinea-Bissau8,26020,54616,971
153Haiti8,061248,115200,000
154Botswana7,98084,50367,436
155Lesotho7,838114,83190,000
156Sudan7,77930,03423,364
157Democratic Republic of the Congo7,7262,903,6832,243,379
158Somalia7,500100,00075,000
159Central African Republic7,200125,00090,000
160Mauritania6,31619,00012,000
161Vanuatu6,0951,503916
162Gambia5,71435,00020,000
163Niger5,42810,4675,681
164Morocco5,30691,65848,637
165Cabo Verde16327,581449

Cultivation of Maize

The cultivation of maize involves a series of processes and techniques aimed at ensuring optimal growth and yield of the crop. Maize is typically cultivated as an annual plant, meaning it completes its life cycle within a single growing season.

Here is an overview of the cultivation practices involved:

  1. Land Preparation: Before planting maize, the land needs to be prepared. This includes clearing the field of weeds, rocks, and other debris. Farmers may also plow or till the soil to loosen it and create a suitable seedbed for planting.
  2. Planting: Maize is commonly propagated through seeds. Farmers plant the seeds either directly in the field or in nurseries for later transplanting. The seeds are sown at a specific depth and spacing, usually in rows, to allow sufficient space for the plants to grow and develop.
  3. Crop Care: Maize requires proper care throughout its growth cycle. This includes activities such as watering, fertilizing, and controlling weeds, pests, and diseases. Irrigation is crucial, especially during dry periods, to ensure adequate moisture for the plants' growth. Fertilizers, both organic and synthetic, are often applied to provide essential nutrients to the crop.
  4. Harvesting: The harvesting of maize occurs when the ears have achieved maturity and the kernels have fully developed. It is crucial to time the harvest appropriately since harvesting too soon may yield immature kernels while delaying it can risk crop loss due to adverse weather conditions or pest infestation. Maize is commonly harvested either manually by farmers or through the utilization of mechanical equipment like combines.

It is important to note that the cultivation practices can vary depending on the specific agro-climatic conditions, farming methods, and desired outcomes. Farmers often employ their expertise and local knowledge to adapt these practices to their specific contexts, ensuring successful maize cultivation.

Health Benefits of Maize

Maize, also known as corn, offers several health benefits due to its nutrient content. Here are some of the health benefits associated with consuming maize:

  1. Rich in Dietary Fiber: Maize is a good source of dietary fiber, both soluble and insoluble. Dietary fiber aids in maintaining a healthy digestive system by promoting regular bowel movements, preventing constipation, and reducing the risk of digestive disorders like diverticulosis. It also helps control blood sugar levels, improves satiety, and supports weight management.
  2. Provides Energy: Maize is a carbohydrate-rich grain, making it an excellent source of energy. The complex carbohydrates in maize provide a sustained release of energy, helping to fuel the body and maintain energy levels throughout the day.
  3. Contains Essential Vitamins and Minerals: Maize is a decent source of various vitamins and minerals. It contains vitamin B-complex, including thiamine (B1), niacin (B3), and folate (B9), which are essential for energy production, brain function, and the formation of red blood cells. Maize also provides minerals like magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium, which play vital roles in maintaining healthy bones, nerve function, and electrolyte balance.
  4. Antioxidant Properties: Maize contains antioxidants such as zeaxanthin and lutein, which are carotenoids that contribute to eye health. These antioxidants help protect the eyes from oxidative stress and reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.

It's important to note that the health benefits of maize are primarily derived from consuming it in its whole, unprocessed form. Processing methods, such as refining maize into cornmeal or high-sugar corn syrups, can diminish its nutritional value. Additionally, individual dietary needs and overall dietary patterns should be considered when incorporating maize into a balanced diet for optimal health benefits.

Nutritional Information of Maize

The nutritional composition of maize (corn) per 100 grams can vary slightly depending on the variety and cooking methods.

Here is a general overview of the approximate nutritional values for raw yellow maize:

  • Calories: 86 kcal
  • Carbohydrates: 18.7 grams
  • Protein: 3.4 grams
  • Fat: 1.2 grams
  • Calcium: 266 milligrams
  • Vitamin C: 6.8 milligrams
  • Thiamin (B1): 0.2 milligrams
  • Niacin (B3): 1.7 milligrams
  • Folate (B9): 42 micrograms
  • Potassium: 270 milligrams
  • Phosphorus: 89 milligrams
  • Magnesium: 37 milligrams
  • Iron: 0.5 milligrams
  • Zinc: 0.5 milligrams

It's worth noting that the nutritional profile of maize can be influenced by factors such as cooking methods, additional ingredients, and variations in maize varieties. Also, different colored maize varieties, such as white or blue, may have slightly different nutrient compositions.

Regional Variety of Maize

Maize (corn) exhibits regional variations in terms of varieties grown and their specific uses. Here are some examples of regional maize varieties and their respective uses:

  1. Nixtamal Corn (Mexico and Central America): Nixtamal corn, also known as flint corn, is a type of maize commonly grown in Mexico and Central America. It is primarily used for the production of traditional corn-based foods, such as tortillas, tamales, and masa (corn dough). Nixtamal corn undergoes a process called nixtamalization, where the kernels are soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution, resulting in improved flavor, texture, and nutritional value.
  2. Dent Corn (United States and North America): Dent corn is the predominant type of maize grown in the United States and North America. It is primarily used as livestock feed, providing a source of energy and nutrition for animals. Dent corn is also utilized in the production of cornmeal, corn flour, corn syrup, and corn oil. It serves as a vital ingredient in various food products, including snacks, cereals, and processed foods.
  3. Waxy Corn (East Asia): Waxy corn, often cultivated in East Asia, is characterized by its high amylopectin starch content. It is valued for its sticky and smooth texture when cooked, making it ideal for certain traditional dishes, such as mochi (glutinous rice cakes) and dumplings. Waxy corn is also used in the production of starch-based products, thickeners, and as a sweetener in some East Asian cuisines.
  4. Blue Corn (Southwestern United States and Mexico): Blue corn is a variety of maize that is notable for its dark blue or purple kernels. It is commonly grown in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Blue cornmeal and blue corn flour are produced from this variety and used to make traditional foods like blue corn tortillas, blue cornbread, and other baked goods. Blue corn is also valued for its antioxidant properties due to the presence of anthocyanins.
  5. Baby Corn (Southeast Asia): Baby corn refers to the immature ears of maize that are harvested before they fully develop. It is a popular vegetable in Southeast Asian cuisine, where it is used in stir-fries, salads, and various dishes. Baby corn is prized for its tender texture and delicate flavor.

These are just a few examples of regional maize varieties and their associated uses. Local climates, cultural practices, and culinary traditions contribute to the development of distinct maize varieties with specific applications in different parts of the world.

Structure of Maize

The structure of maize (Zea mays) consists of various components that contribute to the plant's growth, reproduction, and eventual formation of edible kernels.

Here is an overview of the key structural features of maize:

  1. Roots: Maize plants have a fibrous root system that develops underground. The roots serve to anchor the plant in the soil and absorb water and nutrients from the surrounding soil.
  2. Stalks: The main above-ground structure of maize is its tall and sturdy stalks. The stalks are cylindrical and consist of nodes (joints) and internodes (segments between the nodes). They provide support to the plant and transport water, nutrients, and carbohydrates between the roots and other parts of the plant.
  3. Leaves: Maize has long, flat leaves that emerge from the stalk nodes. The leaves are arranged alternately along the stalk and have a prominent midrib running through the center. They play a crucial role in photosynthesis, converting sunlight into energy for the plant.
  4. Tassel: At the top of the maize plant, there is a reproductive structure called the tassel. The tassel consists of multiple branches that bear small flowers known as florets. These flowers produce pollen, which is necessary for pollination and the development of maize kernels.
  5. Ears: The maize ears are the reproductive structures responsible for producing the kernels. They emerge from the leaf axils on the main stalk. Each ear consists of a central cob, which is the thickened stem, surrounded by husks. The cob is covered with rows of tightly packed, elongated structures called kernels.
  6. Kernels: The kernels are the mature seeds of the maize plant. They are usually yellow, but can also be white, red, blue, or other colors, depending on the maize variety. Each kernel consists of a protective outer layer (pericarp) and an inner endosperm, which is the starchy part of the seed. The endosperm is the part that is primarily consumed by humans and animals.

These structural components work together to support the growth, reproduction, and development of maize, making it one of the most important cereal crops in the world.

Types of Maize

There are various types of maize (corn), each with its characteristics and uses. Here are some common types of maize:

  1. Dent Corn: Dent corn, commonly referred to as field corn, holds the distinction of being the most extensively cultivated maize variety. Its name originates from the characteristic indentation or "dent" that forms at the crown of each kernel during maturity. Dent corn serves multiple purposes, including animal feed, industrial applications such as ethanol production, and as a valuable source of cornmeal and corn flour.
  2. Sweet Corn: Sweet corn is the type of maize that is harvested when the kernels are immature and in their "milky" stage. It is known for its sweet and tender taste, making it a popular choice for human consumption. Sweet corn is commonly eaten as a vegetable, either boiled, grilled, or included in various dishes.
  3. Popcorn: Popcorn, a distinct variety of maize, possesses a tough outer shell and a starchy inner composition. As the kernel is heated, the moisture contained within transforms into steam, resulting in the kernel bursting open and transforming into light, fluffy popcorn. This delectable snack is commonly enjoyed in a multitude of flavors and presentations.
  4. Flint Corn: Flint corn, also called Indian corn or calico corn, is characterized by its hard, colorful outer layer and varying kernel shapes. It is often used for decorative purposes, such as fall decorations and crafts. Flint corn is also ground into cornmeal and used in traditional dishes like polenta.
  5. Flour Corn: Flour corn, also referred to as soft corn, contains a generous amount of starch and possesses a tender, powdery endosperm. It is commonly milled into fine corn flour or cornmeal, which finds extensive use in baking and culinary applications. Flour corn is frequently employed in the creation of tortillas, cornbread, and a variety of other corn-derived delicacies.
  6. Pod Corn: Pod corn is a unique type of maize that produces elongated, pod-like structures instead of typical ears. The pods contain a combination of kernels and husks. Pod corn is primarily used for ornamental purposes and is not commonly consumed as food.

These are just a few examples of the different types of maize. Each type has distinct characteristics that make them suitable for specific purposes, whether it's feeding livestock, human consumption, or decorative applications.

Uses of Maize

Maize (corn) has a wide range of uses and is an incredibly versatile crop. Here are some of the common uses of maize:

  1. Food Consumption: Maize is a staple food for many people around the world. It is consumed in various forms, including fresh sweet corn, cornmeal, corn flour, cornflakes, popcorn, and corn oil. Maize-based products are used in a variety of dishes, such as tortillas, tacos, cornbread, polenta, cereals, and snacks.
  2. Animal Feed: Maize is a crucial ingredient in animal feed, particularly for poultry, cattle, pigs, and other livestock. Its high carbohydrate and energy content make it a valuable source of nutrition for animals, supporting their growth, reproduction, and overall health.
  3. Industrial Applications: Maize is utilized in numerous industrial applications. It is a primary source of starch, which is extracted and used in the production of various products such as sweeteners, syrups, adhesives, and bioplastics. Corn oil, derived from maize, is used in cooking, food processing, and as a feedstock for biodiesel production.
  4. Biofuel Production: Maize serves as a feedstock for biofuel production, specifically ethanol. The starch in maize can be fermented to produce ethanol, which is used as a renewable fuel additive and an alternative to gasoline. Maize-based ethanol is widely used in the production of biofuels and as a component of gasoline blends.
  5. Industrial Feedstock: Maize by-products, such as corn stalks, cobs, and husks, have industrial applications. They can be used as feedstock in the production of paper, cardboard, textiles, biofuels, biogas, and animal bedding.
  6. Pharmaceutical and Medical Uses: Certain components of maize, such as corn silk, have been used in traditional medicine for their potential diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Additionally, maize is used in the production of pharmaceutical excipients and as a source of dietary fiber in various supplements.
  7. Ornamental and Decorative Purposes: Certain types of maize, such as flint corn and decorative Indian corn, have gained popularity for their ornamental value. These varieties are frequently employed in fall-themed decorations, and crafts, and serve as vibrant additions for enhancing the color and texture of floral arrangements.

These are just a few examples of the diverse uses of maize. Its widespread cultivation and versatility have made it a significant crop with applications in agriculture, food production, industry, and other sectors.

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