Dry Pea


What is Dry Pea?

Dry peas are legumes that come from the Pisum sativum plant, which is native to the Mediterranean region. They are harvested when they reach maturity and the pods have dried up and turned brown. At this stage, the peas inside are fully mature and have a hard texture, which makes them ideal for drying and storage. Dry peas have been used as a food source for centuries and have played a significant role in the diets of many cultures.

The nutritional value of dry peas is quite impressive. They are rich in fiber, protein, and a variety of essential vitamins and minerals. They are also low in fat and contain no cholesterol, making them an excellent choice for those looking to maintain a healthy diet. The high fiber content of dry peas has been linked to a reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer.

Dry peas are used in a variety of dishes around the world, including soups, stews, salads, and side dishes. They are often combined with other ingredients, such as vegetables and grains, to create nutritious and flavorful meals. In addition to their culinary uses, dry peas are also used in the production of animal feed, as well as in the manufacturing of products such as pea protein powder and pea starch.

Overall, dry peas are a versatile and nutritious food that has been enjoyed by people for centuries. With their high fiber, protein, and vitamin content, they make an excellent addition to a healthy diet. Whether you're looking to cook up a hearty stew or add some plant-based protein to your diet, dry peas are a great choice.

Dry Pea Production in the World

The Russian Federation is the top country producing Dry Peas in the world. As of 2022, the Russian Federation produced 3,616,059 tonnes of Dry Peas, accounting for 25.53% of the total production. Canada is the world's second-largest Dry Peas producer, with 3,423,266 tonnes, which represents 24.17% of the total production. In terms of Dry Peas yield, Burundi is the most productive country on the planet with 55,021. China, India, and the United States of America are the top three leading countries with '1,476,488', '1,004,402', '684,560', and '400,888' tonnes respectively. The Republic of Korea has the lowest production of Dry Peas in the world with only 6 tonnes in 2022. The world's total production of dry peas was estimated at 14,166,028 tonnes in 2022.

Source: FAOSTAT

Top 10 Countries by Dry Pea Production in 2022

Top Countries by Production of Dry Pea in 2022

Rank Country production(Tonnes) acreage(Hectare) Yield
1
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Russian Federation
3,616,0591,611,74522,436
2
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Canada
3,423,2661,348,00025,395
3
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China
1,476,488934,34315,802
4
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India
1,004,402761,95913,182
5
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United States of America
684,560348,84019,624
6
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Ethiopia
400,888225,14417,806
7
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France
399,910133,49029,958
8
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Germany
322,600106,90030,178
9
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Argentina
296,957112,44626,409
10
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Australia
261,140192,00013,601
11
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Ukraine
259,660125,70020,657
12
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United Kingdom
160,26157,23628,000
13
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Lithuania
152,27071,46021,308
14
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Kazakhstan
149,967117,12612,804
15
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Spain
136,010122,51011,102
16
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Czechia
115,14040,63028,339
17
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Romania
109,24068,06016,051
18
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Estonia
94,86037,26025,459
19
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Finland
92,25031,00029,758
20
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Sweden
85,00023,81035,699
21
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Belarus
63,48624,77925,621
22
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Poland
63,35027,56022,986
23
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Denmark
63,35014,40043,993
24
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Latvia
51,70021,70023,825
25
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Peru
51,23944,66511,472
26
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Italy
45,76016,03028,546
27
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Colombia
43,26528,03015,435
28
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Malawi
43,02047,8638,988
29
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Myanmar
37,41642,4978,804
30
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Greece
35,19020,31017,326
31
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Slovakia
34,55012,25028,204
32
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The United Republic of Tanzania
32,39353,5686,047
33
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New Zealand
24,5406,97235,198
34
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Hungary
24,36010,85022,452
35
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Pakistan
22,08633,6286,568
36
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Bulgaria
20,1109,76020,605
37
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Madagascar
19,82016,29512,163
38
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Turkmenistan
17,8009,91617,950
39
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Republic of Moldova
15,40010,70014,393
40
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Austria
14,4805,88024,626
41
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Rwanda
14,06518,4877,608
42
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Uganda
13,24027,4164,829
43
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Tajikistan
11,8668,79813,486
44
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Burundi
11,5662,10255,021
45
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Switzerland
10,5962,98535,497
46
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Morocco
10,10728,7553,515
47
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Algeria
9,4999,5389,959
48
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Mauritania
9,36931,1453,008
49
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Bangladesh
8,1317,39610,994
50
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Azerbaijan
7,4926,03912,406
51
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Congo
6,9749,3727,442
52
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Israel
6,52217,2573,779
53
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Libya
5,9883,74315,998
54
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Norway
5,8555,81810,063
55
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Paraguay
5,4426,1408,864
56
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Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
5,3563,79514,115
57
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Tunisia
5,2885,9918,825
58
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Lebanon
3,83280547,587
59
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Brazil
3,7201,01536,650
60
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Syrian Arab Republic
3,5562,40914,761
61
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Uzbekistan
3,4721,23528,118
62
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Sierra Leone
3,1383,6208,667
63
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Uruguay
2,7561,29121,343
64
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Yemen
2,7001,71315,760
65
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Ireland
2,64054048,889
66
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Mexico
2,4331,54915,703
67
Flag
Türkiye
2,39288726,967
68
Flag
Belgium
2,23071031,408
69
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North Macedonia
2,1771,06020,547
70
Flag
Belize
1,7051,8279,332
71
Flag
Bosnia and Herzegovina
1,6071,06415,103
72
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Democratic Republic of the Congo
1,4763,6414,054
73
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Montenegro
1,44546231,266
74
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Croatia
1,44067021,493
75
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Niger
1,2072,8064,303
76
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Japan
1,13345524,931
77
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Bhutan
99056917,388
78
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Chile
97795210,262
79
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Luxembourg
97027035,926
80
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Jamaica
96083611,483
81
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South Africa
91689410,249
82
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Ecuador
7871,4805,322
83
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Slovenia
73032022,813
84
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Eritrea
6641,5284,348
85
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Guyana
4888295,880
86
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Lesotho
4691,3713,421
87
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Dominican Republic
4434799,243
88
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Egypt
2749329,602
89
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Kyrgyzstan
26116915,444
90
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Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
1479216,040
91
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Palestine
1094325,525
92
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Georgia
83849,789
93
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Cyprus
604015,000
94
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Armenia
362613,731
95
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Republic of Korea
6414,331

Cultivation of Dry Peas

Dry pea is a crop that is relatively easy to cultivate and is grown in many parts of the world. Here are some key points to consider when cultivating dry peas:

  1. Climate: Dry peas are adaptable to a variety of climatic conditions, ranging from cool temperate to subtropical regions. They thrive in a cool and moist growing season and are also tolerant of frost. The ideal temperature range for optimal germination falls between 15-25°C.
  2. Soil: Dry pea grows best in well-drained soils with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5. The soil should be free of weeds and well-prepared before planting. Adding organic matter such as compost or manure can help improve soil fertility.
  3. Planting: Dry pea is typically planted in the spring, between March and May, depending on the region. Seeds are usually sown directly into the soil, with a planting depth of 2-5 cm. Rows should be spaced 30-50 cm apart to allow for adequate growth.
  4. Fertilizer: Dry pea is a legume and can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, reducing the need for nitrogen fertilizer. However, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers can be beneficial in increasing crop yield.
  5. Watering: Dry pea requires moderate water, with an average of 40-50 cm of rainfall during the growing season. Irrigation can be used in drier areas, but care should be taken not to over-water, as this can lead to disease and reduced crop quality.
  6. Pest and disease control: Common pests include aphids, cutworms, and spider mites, while diseases such as powdery mildew and root rot can affect crop health. Integrated pest management practices, including crop rotation and the use of natural predators, can help control pests and reduce the need for chemical treatments.
  7. Harvesting: Dry pea is ready for harvesting when the pods have dried and turned brown. The crop is usually harvested using a combine harvester, with care taken to avoid damage to the seeds. Once harvested, the crop should be dried and stored in a cool, dry place to prevent spoilage.

In summary, dry pea is a crop that can be grown in a range of climates and soil types. With proper care and attention to planting, fertilizing, watering, pest and disease control, and harvesting, growers can produce a healthy and high-quality crop.

Health Benefits of Dry Peas

Dry peas are a nutrient-dense food that provides a wide range of health benefits. Here are some key health benefits of consuming dry peas:

  1. High in protein: Dry peas are a good source of plant-based protein, making them an excellent choice for vegetarians and vegans. One cup of cooked dry peas provides approximately 16 grams of protein.
  2. Rich in fiber: Dry peas are high in dietary fiber, which can help promote digestive health, lower cholesterol levels, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
  3. Low in fat and calories: Dry peas are low in fat and calories, making them a good choice for people looking to manage their weight or maintain a healthy diet. They are also free of cholesterol and saturated fat.
  4. Rich in vitamins and minerals: Dry peas are a good source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin C, folate, iron, and potassium. These nutrients are essential for maintaining a healthy immune system, preventing anemia, and regulating blood pressure.
  5. May lower the risk of chronic diseases: The high fiber content of dry peas has been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer. They also contain antioxidants, which can help protect against oxidative stress and inflammation.
  6. May improve blood sugar control: Dry peas have a low glycemic index, which means they do not cause a rapid increase in blood sugar levels. This makes them a good choice for people with diabetes or those looking to improve their blood sugar control.

Overall, consuming dry peas as part of a balanced diet can provide a range of health benefits, including improved digestive health, lower cholesterol levels, and a reduced risk of chronic diseases.

Nutritional Information of Dry Peas

Here is the approximate nutritional profile of dry peas per 100 grams:

  • Calories: 81
  • Protein: 5.4 grams
  • Carbohydrates: 14.5 grams
  • Fiber: 5.5 grams
  • Fat: 0.4 grams
  • Sugars: 3.3 grams
  • Sodium: 5 milligrams
  • Potassium: 244 milligrams
  • Calcium: 25 milligrams
  • Iron: 1.5 milligrams
  • Magnesium: 33 milligrams
  • Phosphorus: 98 milligrams
  • Vitamin C: 1.9 milligrams
  • Folate: 65 micrograms

Dry peas are a good source of plant-based protein, fiber, and a variety of essential vitamins and minerals. They are also low in fat and calories, making them a healthy addition to any diet. The high fiber content of dry peas has been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer. Additionally, dry peas are a good source of iron, which is important for preventing anemia, and potassium, which can help regulate blood pressure.

Structure of Dry Peas

Dry peas are a type of legume and have a distinctive structure that sets them apart from other types of plant foods. Here are the main structural components of dry peas:

  1. Seed Coat: The outer layer of a dry pea is the seed coat, which is typically tan, brown, or green. The seed coat is hard and protects the seed inside.
  2. Cotyledons: The two halves inside the seed coat are the cotyledons, which are the nutrient-rich parts of the seed that provide energy and nutrition for the developing plant. When cooked, the cotyledons become soft and tender.
  3. Embryo: The embryo is the small, developing plant that is located at one end of the cotyledons. The embryo contains the genetic material necessary for the development of the plant.
  4. Hilum: The hilum is the small, oval-shaped spot on the surface of the pea where the seed was attached to the pod. The hilum is typically lighter in color than the rest of the seed coat.
  5. Radicle: The radicle is the small root that emerges from the embryo and is the first part of the plant to grow when the seed is planted.
  6. Plumule: The plumule is the tiny shoot that emerges from the top of the embryo and eventually develops into the stem and leaves of the plant.

In summary, the structure of dry peas consists of a hard seed coat that protects the nutrient-rich cotyledons, which contain the developing embryo, hilum, radicle, and plumule. This unique structure makes dry peas a versatile and nutritious food that can be used in a variety of dishes.

Types of Dry Peas

Several different types of dry peas are commonly used for food and feed. Here are some of the most popular types of dry peas:

  1. Green Peas: Green peas are the most common type of dry pea and are often used in soups, stews, and curries. They have a sweet flavor and a bright green color.
  2. Yellow Peas: Yellow peas are slightly larger than green peas and have a mild, earthy flavor. They are often used in split form to make pea soup.
  3. Chickpeas: Chickpeas are a type of dry pea that is popular in Middle Eastern and Indian cuisine. They have a nutty flavor and a firm texture and are often used in dishes such as hummus and falafel.
  4. Black-Eyed Peas: Black-eyed peas are a type of dry pea that is commonly used in Southern cooking. They have a creamy texture and a mild, nutty flavor.
  5. Split Peas: Split peas are made by splitting green or yellow peas in half, which makes them cook more quickly and creates a smooth texture. They are often used in soups and stews.
  6. Pigeon Peas: Pigeon peas are a type of dry pea that is commonly used in Caribbean and Indian cuisine. They have a nutty flavor and are often used in dishes such as rice and peas.

In addition to these common types of dry peas, several other varieties are used in different parts of the world. Each type of dry pea has its unique flavor and texture, which makes them suitable for different types of dishes.

Uses of Dry Peas

Dry peas are a versatile ingredient that can be used in a variety of dishes. Here are some of the most common uses of dry peas:

  1. Soups and Stews: Dry peas are often used to make hearty soups and stews, such as split pea soup or minestrone. They add a thick, creamy texture and a nutty flavor to these dishes.
  2. Side Dishes: Cooked dry peas can be used as a side dish, either on their own or mixed with other vegetables. They can be seasoned with herbs and spices to enhance their flavor.
  3. Salads: Dry peas can be added to salads to provide protein and fiber. They can be cooked or sprouted and mixed with other ingredients such as lettuce, tomatoes, and cucumbers.
  4. Snacks: Dry peas can be roasted or seasoned with spices to create a crunchy, savory snack. They are a healthier alternative to potato chips or other processed snacks.
  5. Veggie Burgers: Dry peas can be mashed and mixed with other ingredients to make vegetarian or vegan burgers. They add protein and fiber to the burgers and provide a nutty flavor.
  6. Animal Feed: Dry peas are also used as animal feed, particularly for livestock such as pigs and poultry. They are a good source of protein and are often used as a substitute for soybeans.

In addition to these common uses, dry peas can also be used in baking, as a thickener for sauces and gravies, and as a meat substitute in vegetarian dishes. Their versatility and nutrient content make them a valuable ingredient in any kitchen.