Pea

What is Pea?

Peas are small, spherical seeds, or seed pods, of the plant species Pisum sativum, typically green or yellow. The seed pods, which develop from the flower's ovary, are considered fruits as they contain seeds. Other edible seeds from the Fabaceae family, like the pigeon pea and cowpea, may also be referred to as peas. These plants have a one-year life cycle and an average weight between 0.1 to 0.36 grams.

Peas are a type of legume that has been cultivated for thousands of years and are now enjoyed all around the world. They are nutritious and versatile food that can be cooked in a variety of ways and used in many different dishes.

Peas come in several different varieties, including green peas, snow peas, and sugar snap peas. Green peas are the most commonly consumed variety and can be found fresh, frozen, or canned. Snow peas and sugar snap peas are both eaten with their pods and are often used in stir-fries and salads.

Peas are a good source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin A, and potassium. They are also high in fiber and protein, making them a filling and satisfying food.

One of the most popular ways to prepare peas is by boiling them, either alone or with other vegetables. They can also be roasted, steamed, or sautéed. Peas are a common ingredient in soups, stews, and curries, and are often used to add flavor and nutrition to pasta dishes and salads.

In addition to their culinary uses, peas also have a variety of other applications. They are commonly used as animal feed and are a popular ingredient in pet food. Pea protein is also becoming increasingly popular as a vegan protein source and can be found in a variety of protein powders and supplements.

Peas are relatively easy to grow and can be grown in a variety of climates. They are typically planted in the early spring and can be harvested in the summer months. Peas are a great crop for home gardeners, as they require minimal maintenance and can provide a bountiful harvest.

In conclusion, peas are a versatile and nutritious food that can be enjoyed in a variety of ways. They are a good source of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and protein and are a great addition to any diet. Whether you are a home gardener looking to grow your peas or a chef looking for new ways to incorporate this tasty legume into your dishes, peas are a food that is sure to please.

Green Pea Production in the World

China is the top country producing Green Peas in the world. As of 2022, China produced 11,565,652 tonnes of Green Peas, accounting for 55.22% of the total production. India is the world's second-largest Green Peas producer, with 6,182,000 tonnes, which represents 29.52% of the total production. In terms of Green Peas yield, Albania is the most productive country on the planet with 145,518. Pakistan, France, and the United States of America are the top three leading countries with '387,848', '295,500', '245,707', and '203,814' tonnes respectively. Mauritius has the lowest production of Green Peas in the world with only 1 tonne in 2022. The world's total production of green peas was estimated at 20,945,186 tonnes in 2022.

Source: FAOSTAT

Top 10 Countries by Green Pea Production in 2022

Top Countries by Production of Green Pea in 2022

Rank Country Production(Tonnes) Acreage(Hectare) Yield
1
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China
11,565,6521,439,93380,321
2
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India
6,182,000590,000104,780
3
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Pakistan
387,84846,38883,610
4
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France
295,50044,54066,345
5
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United States of America
245,70748,68450,470
6
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Kenya
203,81430,72466,338
7
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Algeria
203,26336,68355,411
8
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Egypt
166,12616,320101,794
9
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United Kingdom
161,34538,94941,425
10
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Peru
148,43437,57739,501
11
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Russian Federation
128,71429,47743,666
12
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Türkiye
120,45512,43396,883
13
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Spain
109,98016,93064,962
14
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Morocco
87,91713,89063,295
15
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Hungary
82,34017,64046,678
16
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Italy
74,98016,43045,636
17
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Mexico
73,53912,99856,576
18
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Belgium
60,18010,20059,000
19
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Tunisia
53,38112,98741,102
20
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Canada
50,24611,59943,319
21
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Poland
48,6008,00060,750
22
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Guatemala
38,2435,13274,513
23
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New Zealand
30,6414,64865,923
24
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Netherlands
30,5604,25071,906
25
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Argentina
29,73014,67020,266
26
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Germany
28,1205,03055,905
27
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Japan
25,0623,43073,064
28
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Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
22,50116,99613,239
29
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Serbia
21,1395,54138,150
30
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Sweden
20,3406,40031,781
31
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Iran (Islamic Republic of)
16,5952,66162,358
32
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Chile
15,9001,79088,804
33
Flag
Ukraine
15,8503,60044,028
34
Flag
Syrian Arab Republic
13,7601,86673,741
35
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Australia
12,5662,73445,964
36
Flag
Denmark
12,0603,20037,688
37
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Austria
9,6001,92050,000
38
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The United Republic of Tanzania
9,5765,39217,760
39
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Albania
8,782604145,518
40
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Lebanon
8,3541,14173,251
41
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Portugal
8,0301,94041,392
42
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Greece
7,74096080,625
43
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Mali
7,6361,37555,536
44
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Finland
7,5804,36017,385
45
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Ecuador
6,9462,66326,089
46
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Libya
6,2651,19752,339
47
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Switzerland
5,73193461,360
48
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Belarus
5,4161,62133,407
49
Flag
South Africa
5,1182,44920,897
50
Flag
Philippines
5,0911,64230,998
51
Flag
Uzbekistan
4,83781759,183
52
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Czechia
4,5901,44031,875
53
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Republic of Moldova
4,2001,20035,000
54
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Norway
4,00069557,588
55
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Slovakia
3,8201,14033,509
56
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Jordan
3,702369100,378
57
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Ethiopia
3,24953360,917
58
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Thailand
2,952223132,234
59
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Croatia
2,70044061,364
60
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Bulgaria
2,67073036,575
61
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Taiwan
2,66828992,236
62
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Belize
2,54792627,502
63
Flag
Malawi
2,5161,22120,614
64
Flag
Palestine
1,95131961,105
65
Flag
Azerbaijan
1,89140247,037
66
Flag
North Macedonia
1,8391,01218,172
67
Flag
Kazakhstan
1,66640341,386
68
Flag
Armenia
1,528143106,860
69
Flag
Madagascar
1,3731,34910,174
70
Flag
Romania
1,34067020,000
71
Flag
Kyrgyzstan
98510098,530
72
Flag
Cyprus
63050126,000
73
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Estonia
48024020,000
74
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Hong Kong
4215773,630
75
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Lithuania
34021016,190
76
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Bhutan
31712525,288
77
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Montenegro
28013620,636
78
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Slovenia
2309025,556
79
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Malta
160--
80
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Iraq
1473739,386
81
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Zimbabwe
1071855,785
82
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Israel
56775,410
83
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Kuwait
23--
84
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Niger
17918,736
85
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Mauritius
1--

Cultivation of Pea

Cultivating peas is a relatively easy and rewarding gardening activity. Here are some basic steps to get you started:

  1. Soil preparation: Peas grow best in well-draining, loamy soil that is rich in organic matter. Choose a spot in your garden that receives at least 6 hours of sunlight per day. If your soil is poor, add compost or aged manure to improve its quality.
  2. Planting: Plant Pea seeds directly in the garden in early spring, as soon as the soil can be worked. Space the seeds 1-2 inches apart, and plant them 1-2 inches deep. If you're planting in rows, space the rows about 2-3 feet apart.
  3. Watering: Keep the soil consistently moist but not waterlogged. Water deeply once or twice a week, or more often during hot, dry weather.
  4. Fertilizing: Peas are light feeders, but they will benefit from a boost of nitrogen. You can side-dress the plants with a balanced fertilizer when they are about 6 inches tall.
  5. Support: Pea plants grow as vines and need support to keep them from sprawling on the ground. You can provide support by installing a trellis, stakes, or a fence.
  6. Harvesting: Peas are ready to be harvested when the pods are plump and firm. Pick them regularly to encourage continued production. Once the plants are finished producing, you can remove them from the garden and add them to the compost pile.

In general, green beans are well-suited for growing in temperate climates with moderate temperatures and moist soils. They are also well-suited for growing in raised beds or containers, making them a good choice for urban gardeners or those with limited garden space.

Nutritional Information of Pea

Peas are a type of legume that is commonly consumed around the world. They are a rich source of many nutrients and have a variety of health benefits. We will explore the nutritional value of peas and how can be incorporated into a healthy diet.

Peas are a good source of protein, fiber, and complex carbohydrates. They are also rich in vitamins and minerals, including vitamins C, K, A, folate, iron, and potassium. These nutrients are important for maintaining a healthy body and can help to prevent various diseases and conditions.

  1. Vitamin C: Peas are a good source of vitamin C, which is important for maintaining a healthy immune system.
  2. Vitamin K: Peas are also a good source of vitamin K, which is important for blood clotting and bone health.
  3. Vitamin B1 (thiamine): Peas contain vitamin B1, which is important for converting food into energy.
  4. Vitamin B6: Peas are a good source of vitamin B6, which is important for brain development and function.
  5. Folate: Peas are a good source of folate, which is important for DNA synthesis and cell division.
  6. Iron: Peas are a good source of iron, which is important for carrying oxygen in the blood.
  7. Magnesium: Peas contain magnesium, which is important for maintaining normal muscle and nerve function.
  8. Potassium: Peas are a good source of potassium, which is important for maintaining healthy blood pressure.
  9. Zinc: Peas contain zinc, which is important for immune system function and wound healing.

One of the main benefits of consuming peas is their high fiber content. Fiber is important for maintaining digestive health and can help to prevent constipation and other digestive problems. Peas are also low in fat and calories, making them an excellent choice for those who are trying to maintain a healthy weight.

Another important nutrient found in peas is protein. Protein is essential for building and repairing tissues in the body and is important for maintaining muscle mass. Peas are an excellent source of plant-based protein, making them a great choice for vegetarians and vegans.

Here are some estimates of the protein content in peas:

  1. Green peas (cooked): 1 cup contains about 8 grams of protein.
  2. Split peas (cooked): 1 cup contains about 16 grams of protein.
  3. Pea protein powder: 1 scoop (approximately 30 grams) contains about 20-25 grams of protein.

Peas are also rich in antioxidants, which are compounds that can help to prevent damage to cells and tissues in the body. These antioxidants can help to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.

  1. Flavonoids: Peas contain a type of flavonoid called catechin, which has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
  2. Carotenoids: Peas are a good source of carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin, which can help protect the eyes from damage caused by free radicals.
  3. Phenolic acids: Peas contain phenolic acids such as ferulic acid and coumaric acid, which have been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
  4. Anthocyanins: Some varieties of peas, such as purple or blue peas, contain anthocyanins, which are powerful antioxidants that may help protect against cancer, heart disease, and other chronic diseases.

Green peas are a nutritious food that is low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. One cup of cooked green peas contains approximately:

  • Calcium: 28 mg.
  • Fiber: 8 g.
  • Folate: 84 mcg.
  • Iron: 1.9 mg.
  • Magnesium: 45 mg.
  • Potassium: 558 mg.
  • Protein: 8 g.
  • Vitamin A: 535 IU.
  • Vitamin C: 46 mg.

In conclusion, peas are a nutritious and versatile food that should be included in a healthy diet. They are a good source of protein, fiber, and many vitamins and minerals. Consuming peas can help to maintain digestive health, prevent chronic diseases, and support overall health and well-being.

Structure of Pea

Both low-growing and vining varieties of peas exist.

The climbing vine cultivars can reach heights of 1 to 2 meters (3 ft 3 to 6 ft 7 in) by producing thin tendrils from their leaves that coil around any accessible support.


To support climbing peas traditionally, woody plant branches that have been cut off trees or other plants are pushed upright into the soil, creating a lattice for the peas to climb.


Branches used in this way are known as pea brushes or pea sticks. The same purpose is served by metal fences, twine, or netting supported by a frame.


Peas help one another to a considerable extent in thick plants. Pea plants are capable of pollinating themselves.

The pea is a type of legume that belongs to the Fabaceae family. Like other legumes, peas have a distinctive structure that includes several parts, including:

  1. Pod: The outer layer of the pea is a pod, which is a long, slender, and slightly curved structure that encloses the seeds. Pea pods can be either edible or inedible, depending on the variety.
  2. Seeds: The seeds are the small, round structures that are found inside the pod. Peas contain several seeds, each of which is wrapped in a thin layer of tissue.
  3. Cotyledons: When a pea seed germinates, it splits open, revealing two cotyledons, which are the embryonic leaves of the plant. These cotyledons provide the seedling with nutrients until it can develop its leaves and start photosynthesizing.
  4. Embryo: The embryo is a tiny plant that is enclosed within the seed. It consists of the cotyledons, a shoot tip, and a root tip.

The Structure of the pea is well-suited for its role as a seed-bearing plant that can grow into a new plant. The pod protects the seeds and allows them to disperse efficiently, while the seeds contain all the nutrients needed to support the growth of a new plant.

Uses of Pea

Green peas are a versatile vegetable that has many uses in cooking and baking. Some common uses of green peas include:

  1. Side dishes: Green peas can be steamed, boiled, or stir-fried and served as a side dish with main course meals.
  2. Soups and stews: Green peas can be added to soups and stews to add flavor, texture, and nutrition.
  3. Salads: Green peas can be added to salads for a crunchy texture and a burst of flavor.
  4. Rice dishes: Green peas can be added to rice dishes such as pilaf or fried rice to add flavor and nutrition.
  5. Snacks: Green peas can be enjoyed raw as a snack, or roasted and salted for a crunchy treat.
  6. Baked goods: Green peas can be added to baked goods such as bread, muffins, and cakes to add moisture and flavor.
  7. Sauces and dips: Green peas can be blended into sauces and dips for a creamy texture and a burst of flavor.

Green peas are also a good source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, and iron. They are low in calories and high in fiber, making them a healthy addition to many dishes.

Climate Require for Production of Pea

The plants will develop best at temperatures between 13 and 18 °C (55 to 64 °F), however, the seeds can be put in as soon as the soil reaches 10 °C (50 °F). They do well in colder, high-altitude tropical regions, but do not survive in the summer heat of warmer temperate and lowland tropical climates. About 60 days after planting, many cultivars are mature.