What is Clove?

Cloves are a type of spice that is harvested from the flower buds of the clove tree, which is native to the Maluku Islands in Indonesia. The dried buds are commonly used in cooking to add flavor to dishes, particularly in Asian, African, and Middle Eastern cuisines.

Cloves have a strong, pungent flavor and aroma, with a slightly sweet and bitter taste. They are often used in both sweet and savory dishes, such as baked goods, meats, and soups. Cloves are also used in the production of essential oils, which have various uses in aromatherapy and as a natural remedy for certain ailments.

In addition to their culinary and medicinal uses, cloves have also been used for centuries as a natural insect repellent and in dental care, due to their antiseptic and pain-relieving properties.

Clove Production in the World

Indonesia is the top country producing Cloves in the world. As of 2022, Indonesia produced 133,955 tonnes of Cloves, accounting for 73.02% of the total production. Madagascar is the world's second-largest Cloves producer, with 24,308 tonnes, which represents 13.25% of the total production. In terms of Cloves yield, China, mainland is the most productive country on the planet with 12,264. The United Republic of Tanzania, Comoros, and Sri Lanka are the top three leading countries with '8,562', '7,278', '5,722', and '2,042' tonnes respectively. Grenada has the lowest production of Cloves in the world with only 40 tonnes in 2022. The world's total production of cloves was estimated at 183,452 tonnes in 2022.


Top 5 countries by Clove production 2022

Top Countries by Production of Clove in 2022

Rank Country production(Tonnes) acreage(Hectare) Yield
The United Republic of Tanzania
Sri Lanka

Cultivation of Clove

Cloves are primarily cultivated in tropical regions, particularly in Indonesia, which is the largest producer of cloves in the world. The cloves tree, which is scientifically known as Syzygium aromaticum, thrives in warm and humid environments with well-draining soil.

The cultivation of cloves typically involves the following steps:

  1. Propagation: Clove trees can be propagated through seeds or cuttings. Seed propagation is the most common method, with the seeds being planted in well-draining soil and kept moist until they germinate.
  2. Planting: Once the seedlings are established, they are transplanted to the field or orchard. Clove trees are usually planted at a spacing of 8-10 meters apart.
  3. Care and maintenance: Clove trees require regular watering and fertilization to ensure optimal growth and yield. They are also susceptible to various pests and diseases, so regular monitoring and control measures may be necessary.
  4. Harvesting: Cloves are harvested when the flower buds turn from green to pink, which usually occurs 4-6 months after flowering. The buds are hand-picked and dried in the sun or by artificial means.
  5. Processing: The dried cloves are sorted, cleaned, and packaged for sale or further processing into essential oils or other products.

Overall, the cultivation of cloves requires careful attention to detail and a suitable climate, but it can be a profitable and rewarding venture for farmers in the right conditions.

Health Benefits of Clove

Clove is a popular spice that is commonly used in cooking, but it also has numerous health benefits. Here are some of the potential health benefits of clove:

  1. Rich in antioxidants: Clove is a good source of antioxidants, which help to protect the body against damage from free radicals.
  2. Anti-inflammatory properties: Clove contains compounds that have anti-inflammatory properties, which may help to reduce inflammation in the body.
  3. Promotes oral health: Clove oil is often used to treat toothaches and other dental problems. It has antimicrobial properties that can help to kill bacteria in the mouth, reducing the risk of gum disease and other oral infections.
  4. May improve digestion: Clove is thought to help stimulate the production of digestive enzymes, which can aid in digestion and reduce symptoms of bloating and gas.
  5. May have anti-cancer properties: Some studies have suggested that clove extract may have anti-cancer properties, although more research is needed to confirm this.
  6. May help regulate blood sugar: Clove may help to regulate blood sugar levels, making it potentially useful for people with diabetes.
  7. May have antimicrobial properties: Clove has been shown to have antimicrobial properties, which may help to fight infections caused by bacteria and fungi.

It's important to note that while clove has potential health benefits, it's also possible to have too much of a good thing. Clove oil, for example, can be toxic if ingested in large quantities. As with any supplement or natural remedy, it's a good idea to talk to your doctor before using clove as a treatment for any health condition.

Nutritional Information of Clove

Cloves are a highly aromatic spice and while they are not consumed in large amounts, they do contain some beneficial nutrients.

A tablespoon (about 6 grams) of ground cloves contains approximately:

  • Calories: 21
  • Carbohydrates: 1.4 grams
  • Fiber: 1 gram
  • Protein: 0.4 grams
  • Fat: 0.7 grams
  • Manganese: 30% of the Daily Value (DV)
  • Vitamin K: 2% of the DV

Cloves are also a good source of various antioxidants, including eugenol, which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. They also contain small amounts of other vitamins and minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamin E.

While cloves are not a significant source of nutrients, their high antioxidant content and potential health benefits make them a valuable addition to a balanced diet. However, it is important to note that consuming large amounts of cloves or clove oil can be harmful and may cause adverse side effects.

Structure of Clove

Cloves are the dried flower buds of the clove tree, and they have a unique structure that contributes to their distinctive flavor and aroma. Each clove bud is roughly cylindrical, with a tapered end that resembles a nail.

The outer surface of the clove bud is a reddish-brown color and has a wrinkled texture. When the clove bud is broken or cut, the interior is revealed, which consists of a central stem or axis that is surrounded by four small, pointed petals. These petals are the actual cloves, and they are tightly packed together around the axis.

The essential oil that gives cloves their strong aroma and flavor is concentrated in the petals, which is why they are the most valuable part of the clove bud. In addition, the central axis of the clove bud contains a small, oily sac that is also prized for its flavor and aroma.

Overall, the structure of cloves is complex and unique, which makes them a highly sought-after spice in many culinary traditions around the world.

Types of Clove

There are three main types of clove:

  1. Syzygium aromaticum: This is the most common type of clove and is the one that is typically used in cooking and as a natural remedy. It is native to Indonesia but is now grown in other parts of the world as well.
  2. Eugenia caryophyllata: This type of clove is also known as "Madagascar clove" and is grown in Madagascar, as well as other parts of Africa and Asia.
  3. Syzygium caryophyllatum: This type of clove is also known as "Tanzanian clove" and is grown in Tanzania, as well as in other parts of East Africa.

While all three types of clove contain similar compounds and are used for similar purposes, there may be slight differences in flavor or aroma between them. It's also worth noting that the quality of clove can vary depending on where it is grown and how it is processed, so it's important to choose high-quality, fresh clove for the best flavor and health benefits.

Uses of Clove

Cloves have been used for various purposes for centuries, thanks to their distinctive flavor, aroma, and medicinal properties.

Some of the most common uses of cloves include:

  1. Culinary uses: Cloves are widely used in cooking to add flavor and aroma to a variety of dishes, including baked goods, meats, soups, and stews. They are also used in spice blends, such as garam masala and pumpkin pie spice.
  2. Dental care: Cloves are known for their antiseptic and pain-relieving properties, which make them a popular natural remedy for toothaches and gum problems. They can be used in the form of clove oil or as a poultice applied directly to the affected area.
  3. Aromatherapy: Clove essential oil is used in aromatherapy to promote relaxation, relieve stress, and ease respiratory problems. It can be diffused, used in massage, or added to a bath.
  4. Insect repellent: Cloves have a strong, spicy aroma that repels many insects, including mosquitoes and ants. They can be used in the form of a sachet or essential oil to keep insects away from the home or garden.
  5. Medicinal uses: Cloves are believed to have various medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antioxidant effects. They have been used to treat digestive problems, respiratory infections, and skin conditions, among other ailments.

Overall, cloves have a wide range of uses and are a versatile and valuable spice in many cultures around the world.